People, Land and Living
Human being need land for living as simple as that the principle of ecosystem. However, life is complicated due to the different of interest between economy, politic, development, social and environment. In fact, both of social and environment issues usually exposed to policies` impact for the sake of the development`s agenda as a result of collaboration of politic and economy interests. On the other hand, social and environmental issues are significant in order to support living system as a nation, society and individual.
Today, environmental and social order are critical issues. Two issues viewed separately by decision makers, then it cause environmental degradation and social problem. Ideally, it should be unity between social and environmental analysis impact basically for natural exploration management. Indonesia`s ideology stressed justice for all Indonesians, but at the same time agrarian conflict, conflict of peasant and company has significantly increasing for recent years. We have to look this problem with moral perspective which is guided by our ideology and constitution (UUD 1945). Moral perspective is needed refer to humanity`s perspective to look out the people.
Social and Environmental Justice
Social justice related to the nature is the management of natural resources such as land, water, and air. Social justice is created to build prosperity through fairly management of natural resources. This terminology related to local people whose livelihood depend on nature, such as farmer, peasant and fisherman. Besides that, there are indigenous people who are living in forest area. Both of local people and indigenous people have their knowledge based on their experience. The best practice of nature conservation of local and indigenous people should be collected to enrich scientific knowledge.
Meanwhile, we have to collect the policies which is proper to implemented as conservation. Subsequently, the best practice and policy of conservation should be formulated as code of conduct environmental justice. Environmental justice should be processed simultaneously with social justice which is simply justified as sustainable way. If our attitude pro of conservation then it would be economically benefit with guarantee of well-preserved ecosystem.
Unfortunately, the reality that ecosystem has been degraded by industries and inappropriate public policy. It simply says that the presence of industry due to by policy design. Industry has changed society`s view to accumulate capital with less nature conservation, such as farmer using pesticide to increasing harvest. Sadly, industry produce commodities then it require land using extended rapidly that it cause social conflict because harming local people`s livelihood; reduction of productive land for peasant which is cause depression and poverty trap; environmental problem such as water and air pollution and degraded land.
Land as Mother Nature
Land is a place for organisms (people, animal and plant) living which provide all materials such as water, food and energy. Land has close relations with nature that people depend on. Nature build people to be a learner to understand how nature communicate across animal, wind, weather or mountain. Nature teach people to be patient, wisely, live in simplicity and peacefully. Learning nature is a way to thankful to the God ideally, then respect the nature is a spiritual intelligent.
Nature cannot be fully owned by individual due to nature and people have mutual take and give. The basic principle of nature is sustainability that after we use it, then we have to pay back which is maintain the balance of nature and bequeathed for the next generation.
Land is a symbol of life struggle especially for farmer or peasant. Agriculture need harmonious living between people and nature. Land grab is the worst case that violate social and environmental justice. Land grab would destroy culture, norm and social structure in some areas. When farmer or peasant has lost their land then it would lose of life, dignity, hope, history, culture and social order. The horrible situation is the land are waiting for their death.
It is reasonable why the farmer or peasant or fisherman usually protest when they become vulnerable group or displaced. They try to fight for their life and their future for their generation. The implementation of social and environmental justice are in line with human right value. The one of human right`s implementation is freedom from fear. For vulnerable group which is their livelihood depend on nature kindness or living in a poverty rate are the most priority for the agenda of development. Then policy makers should consider those groups from fear.
Development is a must to achieve prosperity for all citizen. Then, for the sake of the development, it should stand up for social and environmental justice. If, development cannot enforce social and environmental justice then the development has lost the main goal. The successful of the development should measure how the social life work. It is indicated by low resistance from vulnerable people then they may life with the real existency of the state behind them.